Obertura capacitat exportació, i comerç exterior

Ricardo, David

ricardo2(Londres, 1772 – Gatcomb Park, Gloucestershire, 1823) Economista inglés. Fue uno de los economistas clásicos más influyentes. Era un hombre de negocios, financiero y especulador.

Su formación económica fue autodidacta y tardía, y se debió a la lectura de la obra fundamental de Adam Smith, La riqueza de las naciones. A partir de ella desarrolló su propio pensamiento, centrado inicialmente en cuestiones monetarias; en ese terreno no fue muy original, defendiendo la teoría cuantitativista que vinculaba la inflación monetaria con la abundancia de dinero, y postulando, por tanto, la vuelta del Banco de Inglaterra al patrón oro.

La obra de Ricardo destaca por su razonamiento abstracto, simplificando la realidad hasta definir un modelo teórico que dé cuenta del funcionamiento esencial del sistema económico; se le considera, por ello, el padre de la teoría económica y el primer economista profesional. Con su teoría de la ventaja comparativa argumentó de manera convincente en favor del librecambismo; y propugnó la abolición de las Leyes de Granos británicas, mecanismo proteccionista que contribuía a enriquecer a los terratenientes (que dominaban el Parlamento y la vida política) en detrimento de los verdaderos creadores de riqueza, que eran los empresarios capitalistas.

Ricardo fue, por tanto, un portavoz cualificado de los intereses empresariales surgidos al calor de la «revolución industrial»; y así se explica su influencia sobre el resto de la escuela clásica (hasta John Stuart Mill) y sobre el pensamiento económico ortodoxo del mundo capitalista hasta el siglo XX (actualizado por revisiones como la de Alfred Marshall).

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • Principios de economía política y tributación (1817)

Schumpeter, Joseph A.

schumpeter(Třešť, República Txeca 1883 – Taconic, EUA, 1950) Economista austro-nord-americà, ministre de Finances d’Àustria entre 1919 i 1920. Destacà per les seves investigacions sobre el cicle econòmic i per les seves teories sobre la importància vital de l’empresari en els negocis, subratllant el seu paper per estimular la inversió i la innovació que determinen l’augment i la disminució de la prosperitat. Popularitzà el concepte de destrucció creativa com a forma de descriure el procés de transformació que acompanya a les innovacions. Va predir la desintegració sociopolítica del capitalisme, que, segons ell, es destruiria a causa del seu propi èxit.

La principal aportació de Schumpeter és la concepció cíclica i irregular del creixement econòmic.

Schumpeter afirma que al sistema capitalista, l’ordenament econòmic està establert de la següent manera:

  • Propietat i iniciativa privada.
  • Producció per al mercat i subdivisió del treball.
  • El paper important de la creació de crèdits per part de les entitats bancàries.

Segons aquestes tesis el sistema capitalista seria estable per si mateix, perdura indefinidament, com una mentalitat determinada de la societat i de la seva forma de vida. Així mateix va determinar que aquest procés psicològic es veuria alterat com a conseqüència de l’actitud moderna davant la vida familiar, herències, impostos, …

Per Schumpeter el capitalisme és una “racionalització” de les ments, a partir de l’edat mitjana i les seves institucions: l’Església, el castell del senyor feudal, la comunitat del poble i els processos comunitaris de producció, que repetien les seqüències de producció any rere any. La societat vivia en un ambient “estable” de producció, pertanyent el seu treball a l’Església o al senyor feudal.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • La història de l’anàlisi econòmic (pòstuma, 1954)
  • Capitalisme, socialisme i democràcia (1942)
  • Els cicles econòmics (1939)
  • Teoria del desenvolupament econòmic (1912)

Stuart Mill, John

john_stuart_mill_by_london_(1806 – 1873) was an English philosopher, political economist, feminist, and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called “the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century”. Mill’s conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.

Mill expresses his view on freedom by illustrating how an individual’s drive to better their station, and for self-improvement, is the sole source of true freedom. Only when an individual is able to attain such improvements, without impeding others in their own efforts to do the same, can true freedom prevail. Mill’s linking of freedom and self-improvement has inspired many. By establishing that individual efforts to excel have worth, Mill was able to show how they should achieve self-improvement without harming others, or society at large.

He was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham. He worked on the theory of the scientific method.

“Society can and does execute its own mandates: and if it issues wrong mandates instead of right, or any mandates at all in things with which it ought not to meddle, it practices a social tyranny more formidable than many kinds of political oppression, since, though not usually upheld by such extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means of escape, penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself.” On liberty

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • Three Essays on Religion (1874)
  • On Nature (1874)
  • Autobiography (1873)
  • The Subjection of Women (1869)
  • Thornton on Labor and its Claims (1869)
  • Essays on economics and society (1967)
  • Utilitarism (1861)
  • On Liberty (1859)
  • Principles of Political Economy (1848)
  • A System of Logic (1843)

Arthur, Brian

brianarthur(Born July 1946) Is an economist credited with influencing and describing the modern theory of increasing returns. He is an authority on economics in relation to complexity theory, technology and financial markets.

Arthur is one of the early economic researchers in the emerging complexity field. Specifically, his complexity studies focused on the “economics of high technology; how business evolves in an era of high technology; cognition in the economy; and financial markets.”

Complexity theory is really a movement of the sciences. Standard sciences tend to see the world as mechanistic. That sort of science puts things under a finer and finer microscope. In biology the investigations go from classifying organisms to functions of organisms, then organs themselves, then cells, and then organelles, right down to protein and enzymes, metabolic pathways, and DNA. This is finer and finer reductionist thinking.

The movement that started complexity looks in the other direction. It’s asking, how do things assemble themselves? How do patterns emerge from these interacting elements? Complexity is looking at interacting elements and asking how they form patterns and how the patterns unfold. It’s important to point out that the patterns may never be finished. They’re open-ended. In standard science this hit some things that most scientists have a negative reaction to. Science doesn’t like perpetual novelty

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • The Nature of Technology: What it is and How it Evolves (2009)
  • The Economy as an Evolving Complex System II (1997)
  • Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy (1994)

Hirschman, Albert O.

hirschman(Otto-Albert Hirschmann 1915 – 2012) Was an influential economist and the author of several books on political economy and political ideology. His first major contribution was in the area of development economics. Here he emphasized the need for unbalanced growth. Because developing countries are short of decision making skills, he argued that disequilibria should be encouraged to stimulate growth and help mobilize resources. Key to this was encouraging industries with a large number of linkages to other firms.

His later work was in political economy and there he advanced two simple but intellectually powerful schemata. The first describes the three basic possible responses to decline in firms or polities: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. The basic concept is as follows: members of an organization, whether a business, a nation or any other form of human grouping, have essentially two possible responses when they perceive that the organization is demonstrating a decrease in quality or benefit to the member: they can exit (withdraw from the relationship); or, they can voice (attempt to repair or improve the relationship through communication of the complaint, grievance or proposal for change).

The second describes the basic arguments made by conservatives: perversity, futility and jeopardy, in The Rhetoric of Reaction. According to the perversity thesis, any purposive action to improve some feature of the political, social, or economic order only serves to exacerbate the condition one wishes to remedy. The futility thesis holds that attempts at social transformation will be unavailing, that they will simply fail to “make a dent.”

Finally, the jeopardy thesis argues that the cost of the proposed change or reform is too high as it endangers some previous, precious accomplishment.

Hirschman helped develop the Hiding hand principle in his 1967 essay ‘The principle of the hiding hand’.

“the projects that fall into this category must be net beneficiaries of external economies”

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • The Essential Hirschman (2013)
  • Shifting Involvements: Private Interest and Public Action (Eliot Janeway Lectures on Historical Economics) (2002)
  • Crossing Boundaries: Selected Writings (2001)
  • The Passions and the Interests (1997)
  • Rival Views of Market Society and Other Recent Essays(1992)
  • The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy (1991)
  • Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (1984)
  • Bias for Hope: Essays on Development and Latin America (1971)
  • Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States (1970)

Ullman, Edward L.

ullmann(1912-1976) Especialista de los transportes y de la ciudad, personalidad brillante y no convencional, Edward Louis Ullman se cuenta entre los geógrafos estadounidenses que más han participado en la concepción y la difusión de la “new geography” (“nueva geografía”), desde una posición epistemológica que combina teorización y trabajo empírico, a partir de una situación desde el principio central en la institución académica estadounidense al terminar la Segunda Guerra mundial, y en prácticas pluridisciplinarias orientadas hacia la aplicación.

Su nombre permanece vinculado a varias formulaciones en tópicos concernientes a: una teoría de la distribución de las ciudades inspirada en la «teoría de los lugares centrales» de Christaller; una síntesis de los modelos interurbanos de «organización espacial»; un modelo intraurbano; la geografía como ciencia de la «interacción espacial»; la base económica de las ciudades.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • Spatial analysis and the institutionnalization of geography as a social science (1993)
  • Edward Louis Ullman, 1912-1976 (1985)
  • Geography as Spatial Interaction (1980)
  • Geography and geographers. Anglo-american human geography since 1945 (1979)
  • The minimum requirements approach to the urban economic base (1960)
  • Geography as spatial interaction (1954)
  • The nature of cities (1945)
  • A theory of location for cities (1941)