Cultura i valors socials

Myrdal, Gunnar

myrdal_karl_gunnar(December 1898 – May 1987) He was a Swedish Nobel laureate economist, sociologist, and politician. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for “their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena.” Gunnar Myrdal, considered a leading economist and social scientist of his era, left an impression as a reformer, politician, fighter of inequality and developer of the Swedish welfare state. He was one of the leading theorists of international relations and developmental economics.

At the invitation of the Carnegie Corporation, Myrdal explored the social and economic problems of African Americans in 1938–40 and wrote An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944). In this work Myrdal presented his theory of cumulative causation—that is, of poverty creating poverty. Myrdal also pointed out that two economic policies implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration inadvertently destroyed jobs for hundreds of thousands of African Americans. The first such policy involved restrictions on cotton production, instituted to raise the incomes of farm owners.

The second policy was the minimum wage, which, Myrdal pointed out, made employers less willing to hire relatively unskilled people, many of whom were African American.

“It seems, therefore, that the agricultural policies, and particularly the Agricultural Adjustment program (A.A.A.), which was instituted in May, 1933, was the factor directly responsible for the drastic curtailment in number of Negro and white sharecroppers and Negro cash and share tenants.”

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • The Challenge of World Poverty (1972)
  • Asian Drama: An inquiry into the poverty of nations (1968)
  • Beyond the Welfare State: Economic Planning and Its International Implications (1960)
  • Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions (1957)
  • The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory (1953)
  • An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944)
  • Monetary Equilibrium (1939)
  • The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory (1930)

John Kenneth Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith, Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics Emeritus at Harvard University, noted economist and author, former ambassador to India and former presidential adviser. Galbraith was internationally known for his development of Keynesian and post-Keynesian economics. Galbraith was well-known for his wit and candor, displayed in his prolific writings, which include more than 30 books. His most recent book was the autobiographical ÒName-Dropping,Ó published in 1999, in which he spoke of the historical figures heÕd known in his long, colorful life as an economist, professor, ambassador, and lifelong liberal. Hand Out/Harvard University News Office(Ontario, Canadá, 1908 – Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, 2006) Economista canadiense. Su mayor preocupación no era el análisis econométrico o teoría económica, sino analizar las consecuencias de la política económica en la sociedad y la economía política, en una forma accesible y eliminando gran parte del tecnicismo utilizado por los economistas.

Lo principal de su obra se puede ejemplificar en su famosa y clásica trilogía. En su primera gran obra, Capitalismo americano, (American Capitalism: The concept of countervailing power, 1952) señala que las grandes corporaciones han desplazado a las pequeñas o negocios de carácter familiar, y, como consecuencia, los modelos de competencia perfecta no pueden ser aplicados en la economía de EE.UU. Una forma para contrarrestar ese poder, según Galbraith, es el surgimiento de grandes sindicatos. En La sociedad opulenta (The Affluent Society, 1958), contrasta la opulencia del sector privado con la avaricia ejercida sobre el sector público. Con ello demuestra que EE.UU., en los años cincuenta, era el ejemplo de un país con una economía en crecimiento, pero que en su interior existían grandes desigualdades sociales. Finalmente, en El nuevo Estado industrial (The New Industrial State, 1967) señala que las grandes corporaciones (como la General Motors) dominan el mercado de EEUU. Esto, como resultado de su gran crecimiento productivo y el nivel en sus operaciones, que les permite controlar sus mercados.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • The Economics of Innocent Fraud (2004)
  • The Good Society: the humane agenda (1996)
  • A Journey Through Economic Time (1994)
  • A short history of financial euphoria (1994)
  • A Tenured Professor (1990)
  • The anatomy of power (1983)
  • A Life in Our Times (1981)
  • Annals of an Abiding Liberal (1979)
  • The Age of Uncertainty (1977)
  • Money (1975)
  • Economics and the Public Purpose (1973)
  • Power and the Useful Economist (1973)
  • Economics, Peace and Laughter (1972)
  • The New Industrial State (1967)
  • The Liberal Hour (1960)
  • The Affluent Society (1958)
  • The Great Crash, 1929 (1954)
  • A Theory of Price Control (1952)
  • American Capitalism: The concept of countervailing power (1952)

Weber, Max

Portrait of German political economist and social scientist Max Weber (1864 - 1920), a founder of the discipline of sociology, who called himself 'The Enemy of the Squires' and championed the cause of social and economic reform in Wilhelmine Germany, circa 1910. His most famous work is 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' (1905) in which he explored the cultural and religious roots of Western capitalism. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)(Erfurt, 1864 – Munic, 1920) va ser un sociòleg, politòleg, filòsof, economista i jurista alemany. Els seus treballs comprenen molts aspectes i molt variats, i solament d’una manera parcial manifesten les tensions internes de l’autor i els seus enfrontaments amb els utilitaristes, els marxistes i els historicistes. Preocupat per la influència mútua dels interessos materials i espirituals en la interacció de les classes i grups socials, va investigar els vincles entre idees religioses i conductes econòmiques tant en les societats occidentals com en les orientals. També va estudiar els nexes entre el protestantisme —principalment en la seva versió calvinista— i la gènesi del capitalisme. També es va interessar per la natura del poder i les seves modalitats (tradicional, racional i carismàtic), i en tot moment va remarcar la pluralitat de causes del desenvolupament històric i la necessitat de conèixer els continguts culturals per a interpretar els canvis socials, en la perspectiva d’arribar a una conceptualització de les col·lectivitats en funció del comportament social i no de les estructures.

Les seves aportacions metodològiques són molt rellevants, en aprofundir els treballs de Wilhelm Dilthey en la distinció entre les metodologies de les ciències naturals i les de les ciències socials.

Weber defineix la sociologia com la comprensió interpretativa de l’acció social. Aquest concepte d’acció social és doncs cabdal en la teorització weberiana.

Per Weber acció social és una acció en què el significat que l’agent o els agents li associen està referit al comportament dels altres i que és aquest comportament pel qual es guien els agents. les ciències socials no han de seguir el model de coneixement de les ciències naturals, com havia estat l’aspiració de la sociologia en aquell moment. Per a Weber, les ciències socials compten amb una capacitat de comprensió més gran dels fenòmens. Weber pretén que la sociologia no només comprengui el sentit causal de l’acció, sinó també la significació que aquesta té.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • L’ètica protestant i l’esperit del capitalisme (1904-05) (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus)
  • La ciència i la política (1919) (Politik als Beruf, Wissenschsft als Beruf)
  • Economia i societat (1922) (Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft)

McClelland, David

david_mcclelland(1917 – 1998) was an American psychologist. He is known for his work in the field of motivation and especially his theory of people’s “need for achievement.” Rejecting IQs and personality tests as valuable measures of a person’s potential success at a task or career, he developed innovative ways of measuring psychological characteristics. McClelland recognized competence and motivation to achieve as the characteristics best able to predict success on tasks. Together with John Atkinson, he developed the scoring system for the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) which is used in achievement motivation research.

McClelland’s model of motivation is based on three needs: Achievement, affiliation, and power. Although all needs are present in all, for most people one is dominant. He applied his understanding of the relationship between these different motivations and success to management, co-founding a consulting firm, McBer Consulting Company. Their work has assisted numerous companies to improve their methods of evaluating employees and training managers. McClelland provided an alternative to the standard personality and intelligence assessments used for evaluation and promotion, helping companies to hire more effectively and also helping individuals to find a career and level of responsibility that best suits them and through which they can best contribute to the larger society.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA RELLEVANT:

  • Power Is the Great Motivator (2008)
  • Identifying competencies with behavioral-event interviews (1998)
  • How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? (1989)
  • Human Motivation (1988)
  • Power: The Inner Experience (1979)
  • Testing for competence rather than intelligence (1973)
  • The Roots of Consciousness (1964)
  • The Achieving Society (1961)
  • Studies in Motivation. Appleton (1955)
  • The Achievement Motive (1953)