(Born December 1943) He is an American architect best known as the founder and Chairman Emeritus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Media Lab, and also known as the founder of the One Laptop per Child Association (OLPC). Negroponte is a digital optimist who believed that computers would make life better for everyone.
Media Lab is a leading center in the research and development of everything related to the “new technologies” for use in future communications, both in the area of education and entertainment; for it has huge material resources, thanks to the government and more than one hundred large companies around the world grant, and the best talents in information technology.
“Everybody agrees that whatever the solutions are to the big problems, they … can never be without some element of education.”
- Being Digital (1995)
- Soft Architecture Machines (1976)
(1892-1938) Was a Russian economist, who was a proponent of the New Economic Policy (NEP), which promoted small private, free market enterprises in the Soviet Union. He is best known for proposing the theory that Western capitalist economies have long term (50 to 60 years) cycles of boom followed by depression. The business cycles he described are now called long waves, grand supercycles, or Kondratiev waves after him.
The Kondratiev (long-wave) cycle is his major contribution to economic thought, acknowledged by professionals and theorists alike. It is a theory based on study of nineteenth century price behavior, which included wages, interest rates, raw material prices, foreign trade, bank deposits, and other data.
The theory predicts 50-60 years long cycles of economic booms and depressions. Kondratiev was the first to bring these observations to international attention in his book The Major Economic Cycles (1925) and other works written in the same decade.
Kondratiev was convinced that his studies of economic, social, and cultural life proved that a long term order of economic behavior existed and could be used for the purpose of anticipating future economic developments. He observed certain characteristics about the growth and contraction phases of the long wave cycle. Among them, he detailed the number of years that the economy expanded and contracted during each part of the half-century long cycle, which industries suffered the most during the down-wave, and how technology plays a role in leading the way out of the contraction into the next up-wave.
“Even granting the existence of long waves, one is, of course, not justified in believing that economic dynamic consists only in fluctuations around a certain level. The course of economic activity represents beyond doubt a process of development, but this development obviously proceeds not only through intermediate waves but also through long ones.” (Kondratiev 1935)
- Dynamics of Economic Development: Long Cycles and Industrial Growth in Historical Context (1998)
- The Works of Nikolai D. Kondratiev (4 Volume Set) (1997)
- The Long Waves in Economic Life (1935)
- The Major Economic Cycles (in Russian) (1925)
- On the Notion of Economic Statics, Dynamics and Fluctuations (1924)