Territoris intel·ligents

 Reptes

 Factors

El model de les ciutats intel·ligents (smart cities) propugna una aplicació intensiva de les tecnologies de la informació i les comunicacions en la gestió de la ciutat, buscant la major eficiència possible en l’ús dels recursos a través d’una organització més racional dels diferents aspectes clau de la vida urbana: des de l’habitatge a la mobilitat, passant per totes les xarxes de subministraments. És un model basat en grans inversions i cap al qual grans empreses tecnològiques multinacionals dirigeixen actualment la seva estratègia de negoci, que ha estat adoptat de manera entusiasta per la major part de les principals ciutats del món, però que presenta encara força interrogants sobre el paper a jugar-hi per la ciutadania i la naturalesa del seu impacte sobre el benestar. Les smart cities, en tot cas, no posen en qüestió el mode de producció i de consum vigent, però cal considerar com a inevitable i, ben conduït el procés, com a positiu el fet que les tecnologies de la informació i les comunicacions s’incorporin a la gestió del territori i de determinades polítiques amb l’objectiu d’assolir una millor eficiència en el funcionament del metabolisme urbà.

Els principals factors que defineixen el model de territoris intel·ligents són l’òptima connexió i l’existència d’infraestructures de comunicació amb l’exterior, així com una bona dotació d’equipaments i serveis. Són territoris caracteritzats per empreses fortes i tenir una bona disponibilitat financera. Les smart cities tendeixen a ser ciutats cosmopolites i la sostenibilitat ambiental hi té un pes rellevant. Per contra, la cohesió així com la cooperació i responsabilitat de la societat en al vida quotidiana de la comunitat és menys rellevant.

 smartcity2

Mapping Smart Cities in the EU

DG for Internal Policies (European Parliament), 2014This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States are mapped. An analysis of the objectives and Europe 2020 targets of Smart City initiatives finds that despite their early stage of development, Smart City objectives should be more explicit, well defined and clearly aligned to city development, innovation plans and Europe 2020 in order to be successful.
Download document
The relationship between components and characteristics of Smart Citiessmartcities_mappingsmartcities_mapping2
The number of Smart Cities in the EU presenting the six Smart City characteristics
numbersmartcitieseu

SMART CITIES STUDY: International study on the situation of ICT, innovation and Knowledge in cities

Committee of Digital and Knowledge-Based Cities, 2012Over the past six years, cities around the world have been working to meet the commitment entered into at the Bilbao Summit to develop the Information Society in their territories and they have taken a step further with a view to promoting innovation and knowledge management processes, two key factors to achieve the competitiveness of cities.The rapid development of new technologies and of innovation processes has resulted in a new city model, the famous “Smart City”. A type of city that uses new technologies to make them more liveable, functional, competitive and modern through the use of new technologies, the promotion of innovation and knowledge management, bringing together 6 key fields of performance: the economy, mobility , the environment, citizenship, quality of life and, finally, management.This study gives us an overview of the current situation of cities in different regions of the world, in terms of these fields, and allows us to identify particular experiences and good practices, facilitating the exchange and learning among cities.Below are the main findings from the study on the situation of the cities in each of the fields.Download document

Rethinking smart cities from the ground up

Tom Saunders and Peter Baeck (June 2015)This report tells the stories of cities around the world – from Beijing to Amsterdam, and from London to Jakarta – that are addressing urban challenges by using digital technologies to engage and enable citizens.Key findings:

  • Many ‘top down’ smart city ideas have failed to deliver on their promise, combining high costs and low returns.
  • ‘Collaborative technologies’ offer cities another way to make smarter use of resources, smarter ways of collecting data and smarter ways to make decisions.
  • Collaborative technologies can also help citizens themselves shape the future of their cities.
  • We have created five recommendations for city government who want to make their cities smarter.
  • As cities bring people together to live, work and play, they amplify their ability to create wealth and ideas. But scale and density also bring acute challenges: how to move around people and things; how to provide energy; how to keep people safe.

‘Smart cities’ offer sensors, ‘big data’ and advanced computing as answers to these challenges, but they have often faced criticism for being too concerned with hardware rather than with people. In this report we argue that successful smart cities of the future will combine the best aspects of technology infrastructure while making the most of the growing potential of ‘collaborative technologies’, technologies that enable greater collaboration between urban communities and between citizens and city governments. How will this work in practice? Drawing on examples from all around the world we investigate four emerging methods which are helping city governments engage and enable citizens: the collaborative economy, crowdsourcing data, collective intelligence and crowdfunding. Download document

Smart cities readiness guide

Smart Cities Council, 2015The planning manual for building tomorrow’s cities todayThis document was assembled with input from many of the world’s leading smart city practitioners – the members and advisors of the Smart Cities Council. It will help you create a vision for the future of your own city. Equally important, it will help you build an action plan to get to that better future.The first goal of the Readiness Guide is to give you a “vision” of a smart city, to help you understand how technology will transform the cities of tomorrow.The second goal is to help you construct your own roadmap to that future. It suggests the goals to which you should aspire, the features and functions you should specify, the best practices that will gain you the maximum benefits for the minimum cost, at reduced risk.The Readiness Guide is intended for mayors, city managers, city planners and their staffs. It helps cities help themselves by providing objective, vendor-neutral information to make confident, educated choices about the technologies that can transform a city.Download document

Innovation-driven Growth in Regions: The Role of Smart Specialisation

OECD, 2013The OECD report “Innovation-driven Growth in Regions: The Role of Smart Specialisation” bridges the gap between theory and implementation through case studies that illustrate the conditions in which the concept of smart specialisation can be used to design better public policies for boosting innovation driven growth in OECD regions. It emphasises the need for robust framework conditions, which allow market-driven allocation of innovation, capital and labour – only competitive and open markets are amenable to innovation. But smart specialisation also establishes the need for government to listen to market signals when allocating budgets for investment in knowledge and innovation across different fields and sectors.
Download document
Degree of involvement of types of actors in the selection of policy priorities
innovationdriven

Global Innovators: International Case Studies on Smart Cities

Department for Business Innovation and Skills, 2013In the past decade, the evolution and rapid uptake of information technology, sensing, big data and information-based products and services has shifted the way in which people live in cities. Smart phones make anytime anywhere access to information, services and communication a baseline expectation of many citizens, who have adapted almost seamlessly to this new way of living.Meanwhile technology vendors are espousing that ‘smart city technologies’ of increased sensing, information management and control could significantly improve the efficiency, quality and cost of providing city services. At the same time, while city governments make this transition to online service provision, they must ensure that those who do not have access to this technology are not left behind.The public sector faces particular challenges when responding to the opportunities that the ‘smart city’ and private sector innovators might bring. They struggle to quantify the impact of novel, disruptive technologies, which can make investment challenging. The organisational structure and culture of City Councils can block cross-departmental long-term strategic thinking about ICT, and the required organisational changes can be difficult to implement.While all cities are unique, they also have common objectives and face common challenges. Our study of six cities focused on how these cities are addressing their challenges, and how they are adapting their organisations to deliver new digital services to their citizens.Download document

Selection of Leading Smart City Case Studies in the USA

Tekes, 2013First Phase Analysis of US Smart City Project:

  • Survey U.S. urban development in the USA, noting both the hard science of cutting-edge smart technology innovations as well as the soft science of shaping appealing and sustainable smart city environments.
  • Identify and summarize a representative group of leading smart city case studies.
  • Based upon above, target select municipalities and associated smart city programmes for in-depth field analysis and/or benchmarking by Tekes-led Finnish delegation.

casestudiesusa

Download document

 

Towards smart concrete for smart cities: Recent results and future application of strain-sensing nanocomposites

Antonella D’Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Simon Laflamme and Annibale Luigi Materazzi (2015)The use of smart technologies combined with city planning have given rise to smart cities, which empower modern urban systems with the efficient tools to cope with growing needs from increasing population sizes. For example, smart sensors are commonly used to improve city operations and management by tracking traffic, monitoring crowds at events, and performance of utility systems and public transportation. Recent advances in nanotechnologies have enabled a new family of sensors, termed self-sensing materials, which would provide smart cities with means to also monitor structural health of civil infrastructures. This includes smart concrete, which has the potential to provide any concrete structure with self-sensing capabilities. Such functional property is obtained by correlating the variation of internal strain with the variation of appropriate material properties, such as electrical resistance. Unlike conventional off-the-shelf structural health monitoring sensors, these innovative transducers combine enhanced durability and distributed measurements, thus providing greater scalability in terms of sensing size and cost. This paper presents recent advances on sensors fabricated using a cementitious matrix with nanoinclusions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The fabrication procedures providing homogeneous piezoresistive properties are presented, and the electromechanical behavior of the sensors is investigated under static and dynamic loads. Results show that the proposed sensors compare well against existing technologies of stress/strain monitoring, like strain gauges and accelerometers. Example of possible field applications for the developed nanocomposite cement-based sensors include traffic monitoring, parking management and condition assessment of masonry and concrete structures.
Download document

Smart City Ontologies: Improving the effectiveness of smart city applications

Nicos Komninos, Charalampos Bratsas, Christina Kakderi and Panagiotis Tsarchopoulos (2015)This paper addresses the problem of low impact of smart city applications observed in the fields of energy and transport, which constitute high-priority domains for the development of smart cities. However, these are not the only fields where the impact of smart cities has been limited. The paper provides an explanation for the low impact of various individual applications of smart cities and discusses ways of improving their effectiveness. We argue that the impact of applications depends primarily on their ontology, and secondarily on smart technology and programming features.Consequently, we start by creating an overall ontology for the smart city, defining the building blocks of this ontology with respect to the most cited definitions of smart cities, and structuring this ontology with the Protégé 5.0 editor, defining entities, class hierarchy, object properties, and data type properties. We then analyze how the ontologies of a sample of smart city applications fit into the overall Smart City Ontology, the consistency between digital spaces, knowledge processes, city domains targeted by the applications, and the types of innovation that determine their impact.In conclusion, we underline the relationships between innovation and ontology, and discuss how we can improve the effectiveness of smart city applications, combining expert and user-driven ontology design with the integration and orchestration of applications over platforms and larger city entities such as neighborhoods, districts, clusters, and sectors of city activities.
Download document