La resiliència fa referència a la capacitat d’un territori (ciutat, barri, comunitat) per fer front a una amenaça externa. Les catàstrofes naturals o l’esgotament de recursos naturals són potser els casos més significatius. Però, recentment, el terme s’ha relacionat també amb les conseqüències de la crisi econòmico-financera. Les ciutats, pobles i barris resilients són aquells que millor han “resistit” els impactes de la crisi, o els que han sabut “adaptar-se” al nou escenari. Una ciutat resilient ha de ser capaç d’anticipar-se a les futures pertorbacions (climàtiques, financeres, etc.).
Un territori resilient compta amb capacitat de planificar i gestionar de manera eficient els seus recursos, fet que comporta una gran complexitat a causa dels múltiples agents que intervenen en el procés.
El model de ciutat resilient es caracteritza per poder-se adaptar davant d’inputs externs i per tant té una estructura econòmica diversificada. L’elevat desenvolupament en termes de formació i creació de coneixement permet una bona i ràpida capacitat d’adaptació. Alguns dels factors que també tenen importància en aquest model de ciutat és el foment de participació ciutadana i accions comunitàries, així com una bona integració social. En conjunt, la riquesa i equilibri d’aquests factors aporta resiliència.
Per contra, són ciutats on factors com la connectivitat i la localització, la dotació de serveis i equipaments i l’existència de sòl i sostre per a activitats econòmiques no hi tenen un pes important.
La sfida della resilienza urbana
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente (2015)
Public policies for resilient local economies by Oriol Estela BarnetLocal economic development policies are part of the areas of intervention of local governments in Spain for three decades. However, the trajectory of these policies has been conditioned, among other factors, by a lack of legal powers and dependence on external resources and programs. Therefore the prevailing concept of local economic development is often limited to fostering entrepreneurship, business support and employment services in the exclusive setting of the capitalist market economy, and does not integrate a much broader and diverse perspective of both development and economy.
A local economic development strategy that is able to integrate its three dimensions (attraction, projection and networking) according to local possibilities and aspirations provides a much better basis for governing the development model and its evolution in each territory. On the other side, the application of the term “resilience” to local economies, although controversial, provides a powerful framework to build a renewed agenda for local economic development strategies and policies.
Resilient Cities Report 2015
Global developments in urban adaptation and resilience, 2015Resilient Cities is the global forum on urban resilience and adaptation convened in Bonn, Germany. The congress series provides an international platform to share the latest information, good practices, challenges, and innovations for creating more resilient cities. The outcomes present an annual snapshot of the state of urban resilience, building on discussions and developments from previous years.In 2015, the 6th edition of Resilient Cities focused on practical application and implementation, with a prominent track dedicated to financing resilience. Through concrete examples, participants gained insight into topics such as resilient infrastructure, city data and indicators, disaster risk reduction, resilient urban food systems and collaborative approaches. Emergent topics including communicating resilience and resilient public health systems were also discussed. The importance of inclusive urban development and the informal sector were cross-cutting issues which will be further explored at Resilient Cities 2016.
This report aims to reflect the outcomes of Resilient Cities 2015 and broader activities in the field of urban resilience and climate change adaptation. Based on the expertise of international experts and practitioners, the following pages present case studies and lessons learned from around the world, as well as challenges and gaps. The text is best understood in conjunction with the 2013 and 2014 Resilient Cities Congress Reports.
Resilient cities. A Grosvenor research report
Grosvenor, 2014For over 300 years, Grosvenor has been investing in and developing real estate, and for the last 60 years, this has been on an international scale. We believe that understanding the cities in which we are active is integral to the success of our business: it is one of the reasons why we have offices in 17 cities around the world. Understanding cities helps us with the careful allocation of capital between our three distinct areas of business and gives us insight into where we may want to have a presence in the future.At Grosvenor, we realise that a city’s long term success cannot be measured on annual volatility and returns alone. We need to evolve our approach and analyse the risks and opportunities of cities holistically, taking into account their geographical location, governance, predicted population growth and resources, amongst other things. We need to know how vulnerable they are, but also understand their ability to adapt and improve. We need to establish their resilience.
This research enables us to do exactly that and is a powerful resource for advising our clients and partners. It advances our way of thinking about long term investment and gives us a robust risk management tool to help us ensure that our business continues to be profitable and can play an active role in the evolution of cities, complementing our ‘Living cities’ approach.
Building Resilient Cities. From risk assessment to redevelopment
Ceres, the Next Practice, University of Cambirdge (2013)This paper by urban strategist Jeb Brugmann is one of three documents arising from the “Building Climate Resilience in Cities” workshop series. It explains one of the core concepts developed through our workshop series. This new strategic planning framework, called a “Resilience Zone” is introduced and explored through a four-stage development process.A second, accompanying document, “Building Climate Resilience in Cities: Priorities for Collaborative Action,” distils the key priorities that emerged from the workshop series for collaborative action between key urban stakeholders to build climate resilience in cities. This concise summary is designed to be readily understood so as to catalyze and expand cross-sector collaboration.
A third set of documents in this set contains the workshop materials including templates and graphics that were used to facilitate each of the workshops in the series. We are making these available so that city leaders and other urban resiliency stakeholders may consider their use when organizing their own multi-stakeholder workshops.
Resilient Cities Report 2013
ICLEI 20134th Global Forum on Urban Resilience and AdaptationThe Resilient Cities 2013 Congress Report summarizes the core discussions and outcomes of the 4th Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaptation to climate change. While an increasing number of cities and organizations now recognize the need for urban adaptation planning, it is clear that more must be done to move local governments quickly toward the implementation phase.
The following pages provide insight into how this objective can be achieved. They offer a snapshot of the state of urban resilience and adaptation examples from around the world. Ideas, suggestions, and lesson learned for future adaptation work from leading experts and practitioners are also provided.
The 2013 report expands upon core themes of the Resilient Cities congress series, detailing tips, innovations, and case studies. The aim is to provide current, actionable advice for local governments to create more resilient cities. The outcomes contained in the 2012 Congress Report remain relevant and may be read in conjunction for further context.
Climate Resilient Cities. A primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters
The World Bank, 2009Climate-Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters is prepared as a guide for local governments in the East Asia Region to better understand the concepts and consequences of climate change; how climate change consequences contribute to urban vulnerabilities; and what is being done by city governments in East Asia and around the world to actively engage in learning, capacity building, and capital investment programs for building sustainable, resilient communities. The Primer is applicable to a range of cities—from those starting to build awareness on climate change to those with climate change strategies and institutions already in place.