Territoris de coneixement

 Reptes

 Factors

Els territoris de coneixement són espais amb una part significativa de la seva estructura productiva i social especialitzada en la producció, ús i intercanvi de coneixement. Exploten factors com la formació i la tecnologia, i tenen requeriments exigents respecte a la disponibilitat financera.

Es localitzen en zones properes a gran metròpolis, i per tant sovint són ciutats cosmopolites. Compten amb una bona accessibilitat amb l’exterior i hi preval una dotació àmplia d’espais i serveis per a l’activitat econòmica. L’esquema de governança, d’acord amb les formulacions de la quàdruple hèlix, vincula agents de recerca, empreses, governs i usuaris del coneixement, essent la qualitat institucional un element sensible.

 

Growth, Consumption and Knowledge Cities

Riccardo Cappellin, 2011Cities are important centres of service activities and hubs of new knowledge. The changing structure of production and consumption in post-industrial cities has been analysed by building on the recent economic literature in three related fields, such as: the ‘endogenous development’ of industrial clusters, the regional development of knowledge intensive business services and the regional factors of innovation and knowledge creation. The increasing interaction between users and producers for the development of new services within cities creates the internal aggregate demand, which is mainly concentrated within cities, and can be a powerful driver of national growth and the new motor or the drivers of the economy in a modern city. Download document

Identity of the territory in the knowledge economy

Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway, Josep Miquel Piqué (2010)Globalisation has made knowledge economy the object of a shift in the production fabric of cities and regions. Talent, creativity and innovation have become the main items of new competitiveness: seizing and mobilising these resources is the basis for a stable and sustainable future.The territory acquires a double magnitude in this new paradigm. On the one hand, it provides factors to attract business and skilled human capital; on the other, beyond its lure, the city presents an identity and a legacy – based on its own economic record as well as players and policies shaping it – crossing borders and making it valuable and attractive to the global environment. In this respect, the city becomes a node in a global network linked by knowledge, culture and talent transmission flows, playing its role as a soundboard feeding and disseminating what is occurring inside. Download document

The rise of the skilled city

Edward L. Glaeser, Albert Saiz (2003)For more than a century, educated cities have grown more quickly than comparable cities with less human capital. This fact survives a battery of other control variables, metropolitan area fixed effects and tests for reverse causality. We also find that skilled cities are growing because they are becoming more economically productive (relative to less skilled cities), not because these cities are becoming more attractive places to live. Most surprisingly, we find evidence suggesting that the skills-city growth connection occurs mainly in declining areas and occurs in large part because skilled cities are better at adapting to economic shocks. As in Schultz (1964), skills appear to permit adaptation. Download document

Making Creative-Knowledge Cities. A guide for policy makers

Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, 2010If we are to succeed in building competitive and sustainable economies then it is essential that we work to continuously develop ‘international class’ knowledge capabilities and creative potential across the European Union. And as we seek to achieve this ambition through the early twenty-first century, we must also continue to invest in deepening our understanding of competitiveness in the ‘knowledge era’ – particularly in relation to the developmental dynamics of creativeknowledge industries and the local conditions that are required to help these businesses grow and create wealth.This ‘Guide for Policy Makers’ emerges from the EC FP6 Integrated Research Programme ACRE – a large-scale international comparative research programme around the theme of Accommodating Creative Knowledge and the Competitiveness of European Metropolitan Regions.This original work undertaken by 13 ACRE research teams and their city-region partners draws on the everyday ‘lived’ experiences across different types of European cities. As such it provides an intelligent, balanced and well-grounded picture of the possibilities, limits and challenges faced by businesses of all sizes, urban authorities and their partners as they seek to work together to harness, combine and deploy new knowledge for productive gain in highly competitive national and international markets.The ACRE ‘Guide for Policy Makers’ makes a timely contribution to our understanding of the very particular and often highly differentiated European conditions that must be taken into account in the design and implementation of policy aimed at stimulating the growth of knowledgebased and creative industries. While the guide’s editors and their contributors wisely avoid offering overly simplistic ‘recipes’ or ‘menus’ for policy makers to follow, they clearly demonstrate that there is much to be learned from the different policy experiences presented across a blend of comparative European city-region case studies that are included. Download document

Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts

Dr Tan Yigitcanlar, Dr Koray Velibeyoglu, Dr Cristina Martinez-Fernandez (2008)The paper seeks to investigate the changing and challenging spatial nature of the rising knowledge cities’ knowledge precincts.The paper reviews the literature on recent knowledge precinct developments within the frame of innovation and urban economic competitiveness. The methodology develops a typological investigation and searches for useful insights for better understanding the fundamentals of knowledge precincts. The study exemplifies cases from Australia as well as other global best practices.The paper sheds light on the contemporary knowledge production of rising knowledge cities, and points out the changing spatial agglomeration of knowledge-intensive industries and the formation of new types of knowledge precincts as the spatial core of knowledge-based urban development.The paper provides an in depth discussion on the changing spatial concepts of knowledge precincts and their vital role for the knowledge-based urban development of cities.Download document

“Knowledge City, seen as a Collage of Human Knowledge Moments”

The recent concept of a “Knowledge City” has attracted growing levels of attention from academics, practitioners and politicians as a potential solution to modern cities’ sustainability challenges. The idea of a “Knowledge City” is only just emerging, as well as being complex and hard to define. Several perspectives have already been used for its definition, e.g.: economic, value-based, sociological, quantitative, structural and historical perspectives.These multiple perspectives both reflect the complexity of the concept and complement each other. Together, they provide the foundation of a deeper understanding and clearer path to the transformation of an urban settlement into a Knowledge City.In this paper we suggest to analyze the idea of Knowledge City from a human perspective – the perspective of the individual who lives and works in the city. In order to connect the Knowledge City concept to the personal level, we reframe the Knowledge City as: a milieu which triggers and enables an intensive, ongoing, rich, diverse and complex flow of Knowledge Moments.The framework puts each Knowledge Moment at the intersection of People, Place, Process and Purpose.Using a story-telling technique, the transformation of the hypothetical city Zarpom into a Knowledge City is described. Through a collage of thirty two Knowledge Moments happening in eight knowledge places (library, museum, town hall, school, piazza, stock exchange, café and family home) the reader tracks several citizens throughout a typical day.The paper is concluded with suggestions for future ethnographic studies which explore urban Knowledge Moments and their role in city transformation programs. Download document

Innovation engines for knowledge cities: an innovation ecology perspective

Ron Dvir (2004)In recent years there has been an intensive research about the conditions which enable and catalyze knowledge development and innovation in the business world. At the same time, practitioners are experimenting with related concepts, methods and tools aimed at creating “Innovation Enabling Climates” in their organisations. We begin this paper by suggesting a model for such “Innovation Ecology”. This model is composed of several dimensions, such as the physical space, the time space, the virtual space, the cultural space, the financial space and the human space.A second new focus area in the research of knowledge development is the role of the city as a hub for intensive flows and exchanges of knowledge between its habitants and additional actors. Similar terms such as “Knowledge cities”, “Intelligent Cities”, “Educating Cities” and “Smart Cities” are being used.We suggest weaving the learning from the business and urban worlds by attempting to apply the dimensions of innovation ecology models to knowledge cities. More specifically, we look at multiple traditional urban constructs, and show how they might (and sometimes have been for many years) significant drivers for creativity and renewal. Innovation is the process of turning knowledge and ideas into value. An “Urban Innovation Engine” is a system which can trigger, generate, foster and catalyze innovation in the city. Typically, it is a complex system that includes people, relationships, values, processes, tools and technological, physical and financial infrastructure. One possible unifying principle behind the dimensions of innovation ecology as well as innovation engines. We suggest that what Innovation Engines really do is to create Conversations – which are the foundation of most innovations.We bring some examples and snap-shots from several Urban Innovation Engines such as the Museum, the Library, the Stock Exchange, the Café’, the Brownfield, the Grand Fair, the Outlook Tower, and the Industrial District.This paper is concluded with an attempt to provide a set of guidelines for creating a knowledge city using innovation engines as its building blocks, and innovation ecology elements as an important part of its operating system. Download document

Developing a Knowledge City Region. A ten point plan

This paper, by the Dublin Chamber of Commerce, draws together views from business and higher education institutions from across the Dublin City Region. It presents a case for taking prompt action in a number of targeted areas in order to allow Dublin, and Ireland, to reap rewards from the knowledge economy. Our inspiration comes from international best practice and is firmly grounded in national policy.International experience shows that the competition for investment and employment in high value added activities is not between countries – it is between city regions. It also demonstrates that future growth growth will be based on competition for key knowledge workers. The Irish Government has worked hard to cultivate a supportive environment where business and education can combine to maximise growth and productivity through development and innovation in ICT. To leverage this investment, a co-ordinated and concerted plan – taking on the mantle of the Whitaker Policy devised in 1958 – is required to attract skilled human capital. As our capital city, Dublin must take its place at the heart of this strategy.Dublin Chamber believes that among Irish cities, the Dublin City Region has unique potential, in terms of resources, skills, people and infrastructure, to develop as a “Knowledge City”, capable of competing on the global stage. As such, it will stimulate national growth and demonstrate Ireland’s commitment and capacity to deliver on innovation investment.The foundations for a successful Dublin City Region have been laid. We need to build on these by implementing policies that support the attraction of specialised labour and capital to our city, and creating an education system that is geared towards producing the graduates that are central to the successful knowledge economy. We should aim to foster a technology literate society through both infrastructure and education. We also need to look beyond the nuts and bolts, to create a full knowledge eco-system that is recognised across the world. This means developing a strong knowledge brand for the Dublin City Region and investing in landmark projects that emphasise our commitment to the ethos underlying the knowledge economy.This paper identifies a number of practical recommendations that can be implemented in the next four years to maximise return on the investment planned by Government. These steps will underpin the development of the Dublin City Region as a world class centre for knowledge activities and will serve to further Ireland’s aspiration to become a leading location for innovation investment. Downlaod document