Les ciutats col·laboratives (sharing cities) situen al seu centre les pràctiques col·laboratives – concepte utilitzat per etiquetar una gran quantitat de processos de producció, intercanvi i consum com per exemple el cotxe compartit (car sharing), grups de consum, habitatges compartits, espais de cotreball o laboratoris de fabricació compartits.Els territoris col·laboratius es caracteritzen per tenir una societat participativa i activa a nivell comunitari, amb un desenvolupament important de polítiques locals en un context global i la cooperació amb altres administracions o actors. Són ciutats amb una bona localització i connectivitat, que necessiten d’una infraestructura interna (telecomunicacions, equipaments, etc.) potent, i amb forta iniciativa empresarial. Es caracteritzen per fomentar un treball qualificat, produir i utilitzar coneixement amb finalitats pràctiques, per exemple, especialment amb l’impuls de plataformes digitals. L’especialització econòmica hi és poc important, i en tot cas el patró econòmic (mixt d’activitats) hi evoluciona de forma espontània en el sentit de no dirigida. La disponibilitat financera depèn de la capacitat de generar adhesions en els projectes. Factors de participació i acció comunitària com la cooperació mútua són rellevants en aquest model de ciutat ja que l’esfera pública hi és estreta. Per contra, les administracions han de generar regles predictibles i adequades en uns entorns altament canviants.
Cities, the sharing economy and what’s next
National League of Cities (2015)The sharing economy is also commonly referred to as collaborative consumption, the collaborative economy, or the peer-to-peer economy. This term refers to business models that enable providers and consumers to share resources and services, from housing to vehicles and more. These business models typically take the form of an online and/or application-based platform for business transactions. The vast differences in the types of sharing economy platforms can be mind-boggling, from pure sharing services with no money changing hands to commercial services and everything in between. Policymakers often assume that the concept of the sharing economy applies only to ridesharing (or ridehailing1 ) and homesharing, and are typically unaware of the wide array of goods and services that can be shared, which range from food and other consumables to an individual’s time and tools. Municipalities, for example, can even share heavy equipment, reducing overall expenditures and providing needed tools that might otherwise have been unavailable.The common theme within this conceptual space is that cities make the sharing economy work. Cities play a central role in deciding which sharing economy practices are adopted and which are rejected.Download document
Local governments and the sharing economy
In cities across North America, people are sharing tools and equipment, welcoming guests into spare rooms, eating food from people’s home kitchens, and paying for rides in the cars of people they don’t know. Businesses are hosting others in their office space, industries are sharing transport of goods along their supply chains, and municipalities are offering public land for shared food production.While Sharing has always been a part of city life – through public libraries and community spaces for example – the past few years have seen a significant revival and acceleration in sharing innovation. This has occurred across many sectors – such as mobility (bikesharing and carsharing), accommodation (Airbnb, couchsurfing), skills (TaskRabbit) and more – among individuals, institutions, businesses and communities.As a result, local governments are faced with a ‘tsunami’ of Sharing Economy activities. Many are overwhelmed, with little time or opportunity to develop an effective response. This has led to pushback over concerns such as business competitiveness, jobs, health, safety and other risks and, in some instances, environmental impacts. Many cities have adopted a piecemeal and reactive approach to Sharing Economy activities that absorb scarce resources, rather than a more strategic one that efficiently advances urban sustainability.Download document
Sharing Cities. A Case for Truly Smart and Sustainable Cities
Duncan McLaren and Julian Agyeman (2015)The future of humanity is urban, and the nature of urban space enables, and necessitates, sharing—of resources, goods and services, experiences. Yet traditional forms of sharing have been undermined in modern cities by social fragmentation and commercialization of the public realm. In Sharing Cities, Duncan McLaren and Julian Agyeman argue that the intersection of cities’ highly networked physical space with new digital technologies and new mediated forms of sharing offers cities the opportunity to connect smart technology to justice, solidarity, and sustainability. McLaren and Agyeman explore the opportunities and risks for sustainability, solidarity, and justice in the changing nature of sharing.McLaren and Agyeman propose a new “sharing paradigm,” which goes beyond the faddish “sharing economy”—seen in such ventures as Uber and TaskRabbit—to envision models of sharing that are not always commercial but also communal, encouraging trust and collaboration. Detailed case studies of San Francisco, Seoul, Copenhagen, Medellín, Amsterdam, and Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore) contextualize the authors’ discussions of collaborative consumption and production; the shared public realm, both physical and virtual; the design of sharing to enhance equity and justice; and the prospects for scaling up the sharing paradigm though city governance. They show how sharing could shift values and norms, enable civic engagement and political activism, and rebuild a shared urban commons. Their case for sharing and solidarity offers a powerful alternative for urban futures to conventional “race-to-the-bottom” narratives of competition, enclosure, and division.Visit website
The Rise of the Sharing City
Patrycja Maria Długosz (2014)With more than half the world’s population living in ever more economically productive cities, and urbanisation continuing apace, large-scale environmental problems resulting from unsustainable, excessively consumption-focussed life styles are doomed to happen. Meanwhile large amounts of equipment and infrastructure are barely used. The recently emerged Sharing City concept combines the benefits of Sharing Economy and Collaborative Consumption with urban development and community building, and promises to address at least some of those issues. This study seeks to gain a better understanding of the concept, and to offer an insight into its (partial) implementation. A literature analysis, qualitative interviews, and three case studies allow identifying major reasons for and enablers of the Sharing City’s emergence, driving forces, obstacles to implementation, and its potential. Structurally, the underlying changes in the global economy enabled it, as well as the recent economic crisis, changes in attitudes towards consumption and ownership, and the development and improvement of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Driving forces behind the emergence of the Sharing City are identified in good access to ICT infrastructure, the presence of an energetic civil society and an accommodating city administration. Other drivers include a vibrant sharing business scene (as in San Francisco), an active municipality (like Seoul’s), and a sharing-enthusiastic population (as Berlin’s). Obstacles to the implementation and its dissemination are largely found in the legal frameworks governing four priority sectors for cities: food, transportation, housing, and jobs. Deficits are in both regulation that inhibits sharing but also a lack of regulation specifically for sharing. Sharing Cities can benefit the economic, environmental, social, and democratic dimensions of an urban community. One major criticism is levelled against the commercial expansion of sharing, which may be seen as an excessive marketisation of previously ‘private’ life spheres, subjecting ever-greater areas of life to the logic of commercial exchange.Download document
The sharing city – a catalyst for urban sustainability?
Patrycja Długosz, Yuliya Voytenko, Oksana Mont (2015)Sharing initiatives and collaborative consumption experiments are viewed as innovative ways of value creation, which often emerge outside established systems of service provision (e.g. incumbent business models) but have a potential to embed into or disrupt such systems, and thus become institutionalised. The part of neo-institutional theory, which explores the emergence of new ways of doing business, is applied to explain how the new sharing practices can successfully penetrate mainstream markets (Aldrich and Fiol 1991). We argue that once the sharing in cities gains both socio-political legitimacy (i.e. the acceptance in the eyes of policy makers and municipal leaders, who can provide political support in terms of legal frameworks and subsidies, as well as enabling infrastructure) and socio-cognitive legitimacy (i.e. understanding and acceptance of sharing schemes by city dwellers, who are potential users of these schemes), it will become institutionalised and embedded into existing social-technical regimes within the cities.Download document