Ecoterritoris

 Reptes

 Factors

Una ecociutat és una ciutat dissenyada amb uns principis ecològics. La idea sorgeix com a una nova aproximació del desenvolupament sostenible. Una ciutat ecològica pot proveir-se a si mateixa amb una mínima dependència de les zones rurals que l’envolten, i genera la menor petjada ecològica possible pels seus residents. Un cas particular de les “Ecocities” pot ser l’Ecoaldea –o ciutat ecològica en un àmbit rural.

Una ecoaldea és un assentament, generalment rural, amb una filosofia comuna relacionada amb els recursos naturals i la sostenibilitat, i en la qual cada membre se sent implicat i participatiu. Està formada per un grup de persones afins a una ideologia ecològica que, per mitjà de la màxima autosuficiència, procuren tenir una vida alternativa a la que ofereix el sistema. Algunes de les filosofies que regeixen una ecovila estaven ja vigents antigament en molts pobles, en els quals es realitzaven tasques comunes, com per exemple construccions de cases, cultius, etc.Els principals factors que defineixen les ciutats ecològiques mostren, ja en l’enfocament de la problemàtica de la sostenibilitat, una preocupació més forta per les condicions del medi i l’impacte de la conducta humana sobre aquest que no pas tecnològica. Es caracteritza, lògicament, per tenir una alta qualitat ambiental i un pes important en polítiques de participació ciutadana, i responsabilitat de la societat en la vida quotidiana.

Aquest model de territori ecològic no es caracteritza necessàriament per tenir bona localització –en termes de connexió o infraestructures de comunicació, ni per tenir una bona dotació de serveis i equipaments públics-. En canvi la infraestructura ambiental (espais lliures, espai públic, voraurbans, paisatge, etc.) resulten fonamentals.

 

Defining the eco-city: A discurisve approach

Elizabeth Rapoport, Anne-Lorene Vernay, 2014This paper presents the results of a discourse analysis of documents describing six different eco-city projects: Dongtan Eco-City, Masdar City, Sonoma Mountain Village, Hammarby Sjöstad, Eco-village Ithaca, and Malmö bo01. The aim of the research was to uncover the diversity underneath the various uses of the term eco-city, and to determine the extent of convergence or divergence in the way projects conceive of what an eco-city should be. The research looked at five categories of urban sustainability discourse: the aspect of sustainability emphasised, whether eco-city projects saw themselves as a model for future urban development or as an educational tool, the way in which ecocities proposed to make urban living more sustainable, the extent to which projects looked at achieving sustainability by design or through governance and management, and the type of actors that play a role in the eco-city. The results suggest that there is a great deal of diversity among projects considered to be eco-cities. In this sense, we argue, it is better to think of the eco-city as an ambition or objective which there will be multiple ways to achieve.Download document

Eco-Cities: The mainstreaming of urban sustainability – Key characteristics and driving factors

S. Joss (2011)Efforts to innovate in urban sustainability have in recent decades culminated in a new phenomenon: eco-cities. In recognition of the key role played by cites both as the cause of, and potential solution to, global climate change and rapid urbanisation, the concept and practice of eco-cities have since the early 2000s gained global signifi cance and become increasingly mainstream in policy-making. This study provides an analysis of contemporary eco-city developments by systematically mapping some 79 recent initiatives at global level; evaluating key characteristics (including development type, phase and implementation mode) and discussing the factors (such as technological development, cultural branding, and political leadership) that drive and condition innovation in this area. The article concludes by outlining a research agenda for addressing both the challenges and opportunities of future eco-city governance.Downlaod document

Creating an ECO-CITY

Ingenia issue 29 december 2006Dongtan, the world’s first sustainable eco-city, illustrates how sustainability can be a cornerstone of future cities and the business opportunities they represent. It is a city where the goal of cutting carbon emissions has shaped nearly every element of design. This visionary project, which is awaiting final planning permission, could be a major milestone in the evolution of urban living. Peter Head OBE FREng, leader of the project for Arup, outlines the principles, goals and objectives of the Dongtan engineering initiative.
creatingecocity
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Proyecto ECOCITY. Manual para el diseño de ecociudades en Europa

El presente manual consta de dos volúmenes independientes pero estrechamente relacionados, respetando también en esto la estructura del original. En el libro I se exponen los criterios de referencia y el marco conceptual del proyecto, así como sus conclusiones y enseñanzas, y se describen y evalúan con respecto a un mismo patrón de análisis los siete proyectos piloto. El libro II, de un carácter más técnico, contiene una descripción pormenorizada de las herramientas prácticas que se han empleado en el proyecto y cuya utilización se recomienda para el diseño de ecociudades en Europa.

  • Volumen I: La ecociudad: un lugar mejor para vivir
  • Volumen II: La ecociudad: cómo hacerla realidad

 

Descargar volumen I
Descargar volumen II

The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development

Jeffrey R Kenworthy, 2006Making existing cities and new urban development more ecologically based and liveable is an urgent priority in the global push for sustainability. This paper discusses ten critical responses to this issue and summarizes them in a simple conceptual model that places the nexus between transport and urban form at the heart of developing an eco-city. This involves compact, mixed-use urban form, well-defined higher-density, human-oriented centres, priority to the development of superior public transport systems and conditions for non-motorized modes, with minimal road capacity increases, and protection of the city’s natural areas and food-producing capacity. These factors form the framework in which everything else is embedded and must operate, and if they are not addressed only marginal changes in urban sustainability can be made. Within this framework, environmental technologies need to be extensively applied. Economic growth needs to emphasize creativity and innovation and to strengthen the environmental, social and cultural amenities of the city. The public realm throughout the city needs to be of a high quality, and sustainable urban design principles need to be applied in all urban development. All these dimensions need to operate within two key processes involving vision-oriented and reformist thinking and a strong, community-oriented, democratic sustainability framework for decision-making
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