Desenvolupament endogen

Endogenous growth theory holds that economic growth is primarily the result of endogenous and not external forces. Endogenous growth theory holds that investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge are significant contributors to economic growth. The theory also focuses on positive externalities and spillover effects of a knowledge-based economy which will lead to economic development. The endogenous growth theory primarily holds that the long run growth rate of an economy depends on policy measures. For example, subsidies for research and development or education increase the growth rate in some endogenous growth models by increasing the incentive for innovation.

Does an exogenous or an endogenous growth model fare better? Evidence from the GDP growth rates of 24 OECD countries

Hsiu-Yun Lee, 2003

This paper evaluates typical exogenous and endogenous growth models in light of their transitional dynamics implications. Rather than selecting a very special stochastic process of technology shock so as to match a specific output process, we assume only a simple AR transitory shock in both growth models. After deriving the growth rate of output under the two models, this paper tests the cross-equation restrictions for 24 OECD countries’ output growth rates. We find all but one of the growth series pass the endogenous growth hypothesis. However, even with the transitional dynamics implications in both models, in 75% of the OECD countries the output dynamics are observationally equivalent between the endogenous and the exogenous growth models.

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The needs for endogenous development in the era of globalization: The case of Thanh Hoa Province

DO My Hien

In the era of globalization that strong competitiveness is highly required, to not to be lost much, Viet Nam have to strengthen her each local, to make it more effective and flexible from bottom up to gain sustainable development, too.

From the contents of Endogenous Development, it is necessary for Vietnam to find effective way for strengthening its economic abilities, build capacity for development, and become stronger and more competitive in this era. Due to the shortages and ineffective use of resources, such as finance, social capital, natural resources, and human resources constitute difficult challenges to local actors in improving their peoples’ living standards and quality of life. Limited local resources and lack of knowledge in utilizing those are the major constraints of local development. With all problems that local areas are facing nowadays, it is essential to do research on how local actors can mobilize, utilize their local resources for development.

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The origins of endogenous growth

Paul M. Romer (The Journal of Economic Perspectives), 1994

The phrase “endogenous growth” embraces a diverse body of theoretical and empirical work that emerged in the 1980s. This work distinguishes itself from neoclassical growth by emphasizing that economic growth is an endogenous outcome of an economic system, not the result of forces that impinge from outside. For this reason, the theoretical work does not invoke exogenous technological change to explain why income per capita has increased by an order of magnitude since the industrial revolution. The empirical work does not settle for measuring a growth accounting residual that grows at different rates in different countries. It tries instead to uncover the private and public sector choices that cause the rate of growth of the residual to vary across countries. As in neoclassical growth theory, the focus in endogenous growth is on the behavior of the economy as a whole. As a result, this work is complementary to but different from the study of research and development or productivity at the level of the industry or firm.

This paper recounts two versions that are told of the origins of work on endogenous growth. The first concerns what has been called the convergence controversy. The second concerns the struggle to construct a viable alternative to perfect competition in aggregate-level theory. These accounts are not surveys. They are descriptions of the scholarly equivalent to creation myths, simple stories that economists tell themselves and each other to give meaning and structure to their current research efforts. Understanding the differences between these two stories matters because they teach different lessons about the relative importance of theoretical work and empirical work in economic analysis and they suggest different directions for future work on growth.

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Endogenous vs. Semi-endogenous Growth in a Two-R&D-Sector Model

Chol-wo Li, 1999

This paper contributes to the endogenous versus semi-endogenous growth debate by establishing that the latter emerges as a general case, whereas the former becomes a special case in a two-R&D-sector growth model. It turns out that endogenous growth requires two knife-edge conditions of parameters.

  • stands against recent two-R&D-sector models which show that long-run growth can be endogenous and
  • resurrects the stark policy conclusion of semi-endogenous growth.

The driving force of our result is knowledge spillovers between two R&D activities, which are largely neglected in the existing studies.

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Polítiques de desenvolupament local a la província de Barcelona

Néstor Duch Brown

En aquest treball s’explica la lògica de les polítiques de desenvolupament local en general i la seva aplicació a la província de Barcelona. Per assolir aquest objectiu, a l’apartat següent es descriuen les característiques principals del desenvolupament local i les polítiques utilitzades per implantar-lo. Així, es detallen les principals diferències conceptuals entre el desenvolupament econòmic local i l’enfocament tradicional, a més d’explicar els trets bàsics de la nova teoria del desenvolupament econòmic i la seva aplicació al territori. El tercer apartat se centra en la política econòmica pel desenvolupament local. L’explicació s’estructura entorn de tres elements bàsics: els objectius de les polítiques, els efectes de la competència territorial i la possibilitat de dur a terme polítiques de caràcter supralocal. Finalment, abans de les conclusions, l’últim apartat analitza les polítiques locals pel desenvolupament econòmic dins la província de Barcelona, recollides en els anomenats pactes territorials.

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What do endogenous growth models contribute?

David C. Maré, 2004

Endogenous growth theory is one of the mainstream economics approaches to modelling economic growth. This paper provides a non-technical overview of some key strands of the endogenous growth theory (EGT) literature, providing references to key articles and texts. The intended audience is policy analysts who want to understand the intuition behind EGT models. The paper should be accessible to someone without much economics training.

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Endogenous growth, local competitiveness and regional development: western Australia’s regional cities, 2001-2011

Paul Plummer, Matthew Tonts, Kirsten Martinus (2014)

Recent policy discourse on the dynamics of regional development has centred on growing levels of uneven development – the patchwork economy – and the importance of local competitiveness as a driver of growth. In this paper, we examine both of these issues in the context of the state’s regional capital cities. Drawing on recent work in endogenous growth theory, we explore the extent to which differential employment growth across regional Western Australia can be accounted for by changes in the prevailing economic structures of localities, as opposed to local competitive effects. To test the relative significance of economic structure and local competitiveness we utilise conventional shift-share decompositions of employment growth. We then consider the implications of the results for regional policy, arguing that a focus on local competitiveness is important, though needs to be understood in the context of both macro-economic processes and the wider structure of the settlement system.

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El desarrollo endógeno como agente transformador en la economía social Venezolana

Carmen Silvina Hernández

El desarrollo endógeno nace en las comunidades con la participación de la colectividad, es un cambio del sistema productivo del país, donde cada región requiere la transformación de los recursos naturales en bienes y servicios, dirigido a la satisfacción de las necesidades y demandas de la población, generando empleo y bienestar social y por ende calidad de vida. Por lo tanto, el desarrollo endógeno es una unidad de producción de la economía social. Esta demanda incluir formas de economía distintas, como la producción de bienes y servicios de calidad, las formas de trabajo, los valores de trabajo y crecimiento compartido, las costumbres locales. Por consiguiente, la economía social requiere rescatar los valores comunitarios, con sus procesos, así como los valores solidarios, cooperativos y humanistas, para el cambio del modelo económico capitalista al de economía social, para alcanzar la felicidad y calidad de vida del ciudadano. Es así, que la economía social adquiere la significación de una herramienta para la derrota de la pobreza, tanto económica, cultural, política e ideológica; para el rescate de concepciones de progreso, calidad de vida y bienestar social de las personas. Este modelo económico social de carácter solidario y compromiso social garantiza la inclusión de los venezolanos y venezolanas en la construcción del país.

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Contribuciones al desarrollo endógeno: participación comunitaria, poder local, ONGs

Alejandro Saenz, 1999

Frente a la complejidad social del momento actual, los individuos buscan medios concretos para no caer en una alienación y anonimato impuestos por una globalidad multidimensional. Lo local se constituye en un ámbito apropiado para canalizar tales acciones ya que cualquier comunidad puede manifestar sus necesidades, reivindicar sus derechos, o desarrollar su potencial creativo al gestionar -colectivamente- obras que de otro modo no se conseguirían, salvo que tuvieran acceso a los sectores de decisión. Así, lo local puede ser entendido como oportunidad o proceso que permite al individuo superar carencias y obstáculos.

El propósito de centrar este trabajo en los procesos locales -a pesar de los complejos procesos mundiales- se fundamenta, en primer lugar, en los lineamientos en los que hoy convergen diferentes posiciones de la planificación regional y en segundo lugar, en el hecho de rescatar y resaltar valores, capacidades y actitudes propias que ayuden a contrarrestar la globalidad.

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