Desenvolupament comunitari

Community-driven development (CDD) is a development initiative that provides control of the development process, resources and decision making authority directly to community groups. The underlying assumption of CDD projects are that communities are the best judges of how their lives and livelihoods can be improved and, if provided with adequate resources and information, they can organize themselves to provide for their immediate needs. Moreover, CDD programmes are motivated by their trust in people (Naidoo and Finn, 2001) and hence it advocates people changing their own environment as a powerful force for development. By treating poor people as assets and partners in the development process, previous studies have shown that CDD is responsive to local demands, inclusive, and more cost-effective compared to centrally-led NGO-based programmes. CDD can also be supported by strengthening and financing community groups, facilitating community access to information, and promoting an enabling environment through policy and institutional reform (Dongier, 2002). CDD projects work by providing poor communities with direct funding for development with the communities then deciding how to spend the money. Lastly, the community plans and builds the project and takes responsibility for monitoring its progress.

Desarrollo Económico Local Comunitario: Propuestas desde Estados Unidos

Oriol Estela (2016)

La perspectiva del desarrollo comunitario gana terreno en los modelos de desarrollo económico local. Desde Estados Unidos nos llegan reflexiones y propuestas en este ámbito que, salvando las distancias entre nuestras realidades sociales (e incluso económicas), deberíamos incorporar con más fuerza en nuestras ciudades y territorios, si queremos avanzar hacia unas economías locales más resilientes.

Un ejemplo es Democracy Collaborative, un think tank estadounidense que trabaja para sentar las bases de un nuevo modelo económico más enraizado en el territorio y las comunidades. En una de sus últimas publicaciones, Cities Building Community Wealth (Ciudades que generan riqueza para la comunidad) ofrecen un marco conceptual en el que identifican los factores clave que caracterizan el desarrollo comunitario.

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Community driven development in the slums: Thailand’s experience

Tanvi Bhatkal and Paula Lucci, 2015

This case study examines progress observed in Thailand from 1990 to 2010 in the living conditions of slum dwellers. Thanks to community-centred slum upgrading programmes, notably Baan Mankong, this period has seen improvements in tenure security, housing conditions and access to more affordable water, sanitation and electricity services. Improvements have also been registered in social cohesion and the empowerment of communities. The case study identifies elements of Baan Mankong’s housing programme that worked particularly well: namely, prioritising community participation and providing a range of upgrading and land tenure options. In addition, a flexible institution (the Community Organizations Development Institute) managing the programme, funding capacity and political commitment (including willingness to use public land to address the housing needs of the urban poor) helped to make implementation of the programme possible. While Baan Mankong has a number of characteristics that are unique to the Thai context, useful lessons can be drawn from some of the principles underpinning it. First, having the community at the centre of the upgrading process can help deliver maximum benefits to slum dwellers in addressing their specific needs and empowering poor communities. Second, encouraging cooperation between different actors, and having flexibility in the design, institutional and funding arrangements, means that solutions can be tailored to address specific settlements’ priorities. But it is worth highlighting that slum upgrading is just one aspect of housing policy for the urban poor; in order to deal with the pressures of urbanisation successfully, improving living conditions in existing settlements needs to go hand in hand with planning for future urban expansion, including the provision of affordable housing.

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A review of community-driven development and  its application to the Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Bank, 2006

Community-driven development (CDD) has emerged as one of the fastest-growing mechanisms for assistance among multilateral development banks (MDBs) and other aid agencies since the mid-1990s. More than 80 countries have now implemented CDD projects. At least a quarter of these are in the Asia and Pacific region. The use of CDD has been driven by a growing demand from both countries and aid agencies for large-scale, bottom-up, and demand-driven, poverty reduction projects that increase the capacity of communities for self-development and strengthen local institutions.

The success and scale of some CDD projects in the World Bank are especially notable. The World Bank supported approximately 190 lending projects amounting to $9.3 billion in 2000–2005. Its largest CDD operation is the Kecamantan Development Program (KDP) in Indonesia, which has disbursed $1.3 billion in three program cycles since 1998. While success stories are mounting, there are limitations, challenges, and risks that need to be considered carefully when developing and implementing CDD projects.

As the Asian Development Bank (ADB) embarks on its Medium-Term Strategy II (2006–2008), is CDD an option that can help ADB focus on its new strategic priorities? Would there be risks? These questions warranted a review of CDD. Further impetus was provided by the refined mandate of the Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD) to promote quality, knowledge, and innovation for sustainable development.

The objectives of the review were to (i) provide a clear conceptual summary of CDD for ADB staff; (ii) describe briefly the performance of other MDBs with CDD, in particular the World Bank; (iii) undertake a review of ADB’s lending portfolio of CDD projects over the past 5 years and discuss particular exemplary cases in detail; and (iv) recommend options for the use of CDD at ADB.

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Do community-driven development projects enhance social capital? Evidence from the Philippines

Julien Labonne, Robert S. Chase, 2010

We explore the social capital impacts of a community-driven development project in the Philippines in which communities competed for block grants for infrastructure investment. The analysis uses a unique panel data set of about 2100 households, aggregated at the village-level, collected in 66 treatment and 69 comparison communities. We provide both difference-in-differences and propensity score matching estimates. We find that the project increased participation in village assemblies and the frequency with which local officials meet with residents and had a negative impact on collective action. There is also more limited evidence of a positive impact of the project on bridging (i.e., generalized) trust and of a negative impact on group membership.

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