Urban form and infrastructure: a morphological review
Katie Williams, University of the West of England, 2014
The report provides a baseline analysis of, and a forward look at, urban form and infrastructure in the UK. It sets out the legacy of development in the post-war period, and explains how settlement patterns have evolved in relation to investments in infrastructure (for transport, energy, water, waste, ICT, health and education). It provides a summary of the positive and negative consequences of the UK’s key development patterns: compact and contained established towns and cities; edge and out-of-town developments; peripheral housing estates and urban extensions; newer settlements; and dispersed developments. It then considers emerging approaches to the governance of urban form and infrastructure, with potential lessons for the UK, in the face of a number of challenges and uncertainties related to climate change, economic instability, and demographic and social shifts. Finally, the report offers an analysis of plausible future options for the development of: a) existing places (via compaction/containment, the development of polycentric city regions and managed shrinkage); and b) new developments (via peripheral growth, new settlements or dispersed developments). The report concludes with a number of conditions necessary for the effective delivery and management of urban form and infrastructure to 2065.
CitySense: An Urban-Scale Wireless Sensor Network and Testbed
Rohan Narayana Murty, Geoffrey Mainland, Ian Rose, Atanu Roy Chowdhury, Abhimanyu Gosain, Josh Bers, and Matt Welsh (2008)
In this paper, we present the vision for an open, urban-scale wireless networking testbed, called CitySense, with the goal of supporting the development and evaluation of novel wireless systems that span an entire city. CitySense is currently under development and will consist of about 100 Linux-based embedded PCs outfitted with dual 802.11a/b/g radios and various sensors, mounted on buildings and streetlights across the city of Cambridge. CitySense takes its cue from citywide urban mesh networking projects, but will differ substantially in that nodes will be directly programmable by end users.
The goal of CitySense is explicitly not to provide public Internet access, but rather to serve as a new kind of experimental apparatus for urban-scale distributed systems and networking research efforts. In this paper we motivate the need for CitySense and its potential to support a host of new research and application developments. We also outline the various engineering challenges of deploying such a testbed as well as the research challenges that we face when building and supporting such a system.
People-Centric Urban Sensing
Andrew T. Campbell, Shane B. Eisenman, Nicholas D. Lane, Emiliano Miluzzo, Ronald A. Peterson (2006)
The vast majority of advances in sensor network research over the last five years have focused on the development of a series of small-scale (100s of nodes) testbeds and specialized applications (e.g., environmental monitoring, etc.) that are built on low-powered sensor devices that self-organize to form application-specific multihop wireless networks. We believe that sensor networks have reached an important crossroads in their development. The question we address in this paper is how to propel sensor networks from their smallscale application-specific network origins, into the commercial mainstream of people’s every day lives; the challenge being: how do we develop large-scale general-purpose sensor networks for the general public (e.g., consumers) capable of supporting a wide variety of applications in urban settings (e.g., enterprises, hospitals, recreational areas, towns, cities, and the metropolis). We propose MetroSense, a new people-centric paradigm for urban sensing at the edge of the Internet, at very large scale. We discuss a number of challenges, interactions and characteristics in urban sensing applications, and then present the MetroSense architecture which is based fundamentally on three design principles: network symbiosis, asymmetric design, and localized interaction. The ability of MetroSense to scale to very large areas is based on the use of an opportunistic sensor networking approach. Opportunistic sensor networking leverages mobility-enabled interactions and provides coordination between people-centric mobile sensors, static sensors and edge wireless access nodes in support of opportunistic sensing, opportunistic tasking, and opportunistic data collection. We discuss architectural challenges including providing sensing coverage with sparse mobile sensors, how to hand off roles and responsibilities between sensors, improving network performance and connectivity using adaptive multihop, and importantly, providing security and privacy for people-centric sensors and data.
The leading factors for the urban development in Asian context ~Case studies of Makati, Cebu, Taipei, and bangkok~
Akiko Kishiue, Koichi Amano, Primitivo C. Cal and Hussein S. Lidasan (2005)
This study has adopted a historical approach in tracing urban development of selected urban centers in Asian cities: Makati City, and Cebu City, Philippines; Taipei City, Taiwan; and Bangkok, Thailand. The study selects the certain time periods of each study area where rapid or intensive urban development was experienced. Focusing on the dynamic movements of the major urban areas, the study seeks factors which are necessary for and effective on the urban development in the Asian context. Through the study, followings were found out: i) transportation infrastructure development was basically the leading factor of the development where comprehensive planning system was existed; ii) “autocratic” planning system is also applicable approach to improve the planning system and functions of transportation infrastructure in urban development, and iii) initiatives of private sector in urban development enhance the output of investment as well as lighten the load of national and local government.
Pla Especial d’Infraestructures de Poblenou
Publicació dels documents relacionats amb el projecte 22@Barcelona, on hi ha la documentació sobre la normativa i l’actualitat del projecte.